NCERT Solutions for Class 10th Geography : Ch 2 – Forest and Wildlife Resources
Page No: 22
Multiple choice questions
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion
(b) Large scale developmental projects
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation
► (c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(c) Chipko Movement
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries
► (d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries
2. Match the following animals with their category of existence.
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endangered|
|Himalayan brown bear||Vulnerable|
|Pink head duck||Endemic|
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endemic|
|Himalayan brown bear||Rare|
|Pink head duck||Extinct|
3. Match the following.
|Reserved forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities|
|Protected forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Unclassed forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Reserved forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Protected forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Unclassed forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities|
4. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
(i) Biodiversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function, but closely integrated in a system through multiple networks of interdependencies.
It is important for human lives because the human beings, along with the biodiversity, form a complete web of ecological system in which we are only a part and are very much dependent on this system for our own existence.
(ii) Several human activities have affected the depletion of flora and fauna and has led to decline in India’s biodiversity. The main factors responsible for this damage are:
→ Habitat destruction, mainly due to overpopulation leading to expansion of agriculture, mining, industrialisation and urbanisation and consequent wiping out of large forest areas.
→ Hunting and poaching and illegal trade of animal skin, tusk, bones, teeth, horns, etc have lead many speices to the verge of extinction.
→ Environmental pollution, poisoning of water bodies due to discharge of industrial effluents, chemicals, wastes, etc. leading to animal deaths.
→ Forest fires often induced by shifting cultivation wiping out valuable forests and wildlife.
→ Large scale development projects and destruction of forests.
→ Grazing and fuel wood collection.
→Over-exploitation of forest products
Other important causes of environmental destruction are unequal access, inequitable consumption of forest resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being.
5. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India.
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
(i) Indian forests are home to different communities. These communities have a complex relationship with their environment. The Mundas and the Santhal of Chhota Nagpur region worship Mahua and Kadamba trees; the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the tamarind and mango trees. Similarly, the Bishnois of Rajasthan hold the antelopes in high reverence. For these communities, particular flora and fauna are integral to their identity, so they take a number of steps to protect the same. Villagers around the Sariska Reserve have opposed mining activities in the region as these activities endanger wildlife. Villagers in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have banned hunting and lumbering activities in a 1200 hectare area they have marked as Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. Such activities have helped preserve patches of virgin forest land.
(ii) Good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife are plenty. Nowadays, many non-governmental organisations are working towards creating public awareness for conserving depleting forest cover and vanishing wildlife. Central and state governments in India have set up national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to protect forests and endangered species in wildlife. A recently developing practice towards conservation is the search for different conservation measures. Biodiversity is the new by-word of good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife. Various communities, especially in tribal areas, who are dependent on forests for their living are now taking an active role in this form of conservation.